What is Monitoring and Evaluation?

Monitoring and Evaluation

What is Monitoring? Monitoring is the process of continuous assessment of the progress of a project or programme. The project could be implemented by governments, private players, international bodies, Non-profits etc. Monitoring involves collection and analysis of data, such that it is able to provide information on the progress or lack thereof of a project. … Read more

What is Stratified Sampling?

Stratified Sampling Stratified sampling is a technique of random sampling where the entire population is divided into a fixed numbers of distinct groups or strata and then sampling units are randomly selected from each stratum. The entities with each sample should be same or similar, there should be no overlap between the strata and together … Read more

What is the Relationship between Bond Prices and Bond Yield?

Factors that Impact Bond Yield and Prices

Bond Prices and Bond Yield Bonds are financial instruments issued by governments or corporates to raise money. Main components of a bond are its face value or price, yield on the bond and maturity date. Bond prices and bond yield move in opposite direction. To understand this, consider a bond issued in 2020 with face value … Read more

What are Government Bonds?

Government Bonds US Treasury Bonds

What is a Bond? Bond is a financial instrument used by governments or corporates to raise money. The entity issuing a bond is borrowing money from the purchaser of the bond, with a promise to return the original amount (principal) along with interest. Since borrowing money implies that it is a ‘Debt’, bond markets are … Read more

What is Substitution Effect?

Substitution Effect

Substitution Effect Definition Substitution Effect is change in demand for a good as the price of its substitute changes. Say if the price of Commodity A rises, consumers might shift to Commodity B. Substitution effect is seen only in the light of change in relative prices of goods, assuming that the nominal income of the … Read more

What is Income Effect?


Income Effect Definition Income Effect is the change in demand of a good when the consumer’s disposal income changes. Disposable income could change as a result of a change in income or due to a change in the prices of the goods that the consumer uses. For instance, a decline in the price of other … Read more

What is Cross Price Elasticity?

Cross Price Elasticity

Cross Price Elasticity Meaning Cross Price Elasticity refers to the change in demand of one good with change in the price of another. Why measure a change in the demand of one good when the price of another changes? This is because the two goods could be interconnected with each other. The two goods under … Read more

What is Cyclical Unemployment?

Cyclical Unemployment

Cyclical Unemployment Definition Cyclical Unemployment is the loss of job associated with business cycles faced by an economy. Business cycles refer to recession (a downturn) or boom (upturn) faces by an economy. When an economy is in recession, unemployment rates will be high. This is because during a recession, the demand for goods is low. … Read more

What is Tacit Collusion?

Tacit Collusion

Tacit Collusion Definition Tacit collusion happens when firms join up in deciding the price of a commodity, such that the firms do not explicitly exchange information. Tacit means unspoken or implied, without being formally stated. Thus, as the name suggests, the competing firms collude with each other, without directly expressing an official collusion. In this … Read more

What is Capitalism?

Pros and Cons of Capitalism

Capitalism Definition Capitalism is an economic and political system in which means of production are privately owned.  Means of production include land, labour and capital. Unlike Socialism, profit making is the driving factor in capitalism. Note that profit making as an ends to production is a fairly new concept, going only 300 years back. Another fundamental pillar of Capitalism … Read more